Does a strange world exist beneath our feet? Strange legends have persisted for centuries about the mysterious cavern world and the equally strange beings who inhabit it.
More UFOlogists have considered the possibility that UFOs may be emanating from subterranean bases, that UFO aliens have constructed these bases to carry out various missions involving Earth or humans.
Belief in a subterranean world has been handed down as myth, tale, or rumor down the generations from all over the world. Some of these stories date back to ancient times and tell tales of fantastic flora and fauna that can be found in the caverns of ancient races. Socrates spoke of huge hollows within the Earth which are inhabited by man, and vast caverns which rivers flow.
A legendary large cavern supposedly exists below Kokoweef Peak in southwestern California. Earl Dorr, a miner and prospector, followed clues given to him by Indians. He entered Crystal Cave in the thirties and followed a passage down into Kokoweef Mountain until he attained a depth of about a mile. There, he entered a large cavern which he proceeded to explore for a distance of eight miles. At the bottom of the cavern, a river flowed, rising and falling with the lunar tides, and depositing black sands rich in placer gold along its banks. One day, crazed by fever, Dorr used dynamite to seal shut the entrance to his fabulous cavern, and started a legend that still lures men to seek the fabled wealth below Kokoweef.
Nowhere is the belief in a subterranean world more prevalent than with the Indians of North America. The Hopis believed they emerged from a world below the earth through a tunnel at the base of the San Francisco peaks near Flagstaff.
There are also legends about mysterious Mount Shasta in northern California. The mountain is said to have housed a race of surviving Lemurians who built a sanctuary in the depths of the earth to escape the catastrophes which befell them. These Lemurians allied themselves with space travelers who built a saucer base inside the mountain.
Technology is a driver of our times. Since its founding in 1958 in the midst of the Cold War, DARPA has been a driver of technology-and it's the Agency's program managers who are in the drivers' seats. As DARPA director Arati Prabhakar often puts it, "Program managers are DARPA's heart and soul."
Picture a sensor pixel about the size of a red blood cell. Now envision a million of these pixels-a megapixel's worth-in an array that covers a thumbnail. Take one more mental trip: dive down onto the surface of the semiconductor hosting all of these pixels and marvel at each pixel's associated tech-mesh of more than 1,000 integrated transistors, which provide each and every pixel with a tiny reprogrammable brain of its own. That is the vision for DARPA's new Reconfigurable Imaging (ReImagine) program.
Airspace for the flying public today is perpetually congested yet remarkably safe, thanks in no small part to a well-established air traffic control system that tracks, guides and continuously monitors thousands of flights a day. When it comes to small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) such as commercial quadcopters, however, no such comprehensive tracking system exists.
A new DARPA program could help unlock the potential of advanced gene editing technologies by developing a set of tools to address potential risks of this rapidly advancing field. The Safe Genes program envisions addressing key safety gaps by using those tools to restrict or reverse the propagation of engineered genetic constructs.
DARPA-supported researchers have developed a new approach for synthesizing ultrathin materials at room temperature-a breakthrough over industrial approaches that have demanded temperatures of 800 °C or more. The advance opens a path to creating a host of previously unattainable thin-film microelectronics, whose production by conventional methods has been impossible because many components lose their critical functions when subjected to high temperatures.
In a vision shared by innovators, entrepreneurs, and planners in both defense and civilian contexts, the skies of the future will be busy with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Unseen but central to the realization of this vision is wireless communication within and between those future fleets of UAVs that is reliable and resistant to both unintentional and ill-willed interference. "If these UAVs can't communicate, they don't take off or they don't operate the way we want them to" said Josh Conway, a program manager in DARPA's Microsystems Technology Office.
A DARPA program aimed at preventing attacks involving radiological "dirty bombs" and other nuclear threats has successfully developed and demonstrated a network of smartphone-sized mobile devices that can detect the tiniest traces of radioactive materials. Combined with larger detectors along major roadways, bridges, other fixed infrastructure, and in vehicles, the new networked devices promise significantly enhanced awareness of radiation sources and greater advance warning of possible threats.
Nothing is more iconic of today's high technology than the semiconductor chips inside our computers, phones, military systems, household appliances, fitness monitors, and even birthday cards and pets. Since its inception in 1992, DARPA's Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) has helped create and prevent strategic surprise through investments in compact microelectronic components, such as microprocessors, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and photonic devices. MTO's pioneering efforts to apply advanced capabilities in areas such as wide-band-gap materials, phased array radars, high-energy lasers, and infrared imaging, have helped the United States establish and maintain technological superiority for more than two decades.
Developers of imaging systems have long been beholden to certain rules of optics designs so well established and seemingly immutable as to be treated as virtual "laws" of physics. One widely considered pillar of optical design, for example, is that imaging systems must be built from a series of complex and precisely manufactured optical elements arranged linearly. The result of such assumptions is that certain high-performance imagery devices inevitably end up being large and heavy, composed of dozens or more optical elements.
The rapid evolution of small unmanned air systems (sUAS) technologies is fueling the exponential growth of the commercial drone sector, creating new asymmetric threats for warfighters. sUASs' size and low cost enable novel concepts of employment that present challenges to current defense systems. These emerging irregular systems and concepts of operations in diverse environments require technology advancements to quickly detect, identify, track, and neutralize sUASs while mitigating collateral damage and providing flexibility to operations in multiple mission environments.
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